If you’re an enthusiastic car owner, I believe you’ve observed major changes with the different levels of headlight brightness that illuminate the roads. While some vehicles rely on the traditional halogen headlights, some newer models tend to have more advanced headlights that deliver a white/bluish glow with a more distinct brightness. In case you’re wondering what type of lights these are, then they’re generally xenon headlights.

Now, if your car uses the factory-fitted halogen headlights, you will notice that over time, you can no longer see the road clearly especially when driving at night. So, to upgrade your car’s integrity with brighter, clearer, and more energy-efficient lighting, you’ll definitely need to fit the HID conversion kit to your car’s headlights to support the xenon bulbs. Since these headlights have been the trending topic among most motorists, all thanks to their advanced headlights technology, this short guide will delve into what these headlights are, as well as discuss their benefits and drawbacks over their halogen counterparts.


Xenon Headlights: A Comprehensive Guide

But First, are Xenon Headlight Kits Legal?

Moving back to history, xenon headlights were first evidenced around 1990 – 91 where they were used by the 1991 BMW 7-Series sedans. Ever since this lighting technology has grown in popularity where major car manufacturers utilize them to increase the level of premium in their newest car models.

But, regardless of their authenticity, not forgetting their stylish shapes and bright white/blue glow, one burning question in most people’s minds is whether xenon HID kits are road legal. In a nutshell, they’re not road legal as they’re classified as aftermarket modifications.

What are HID Conversion Kits?

You see, for you to enjoy the superior benefits xenon headlights offer, you don’t need to break the bank to buy a newer car model. However, you can simply upgrade your former halogen headlights by using xenon conversion kits. By doing some modifications, these xenon kits can allow xenon bulbs to fit on your halogen headlights.

How Can You Avoid this Illegality?

One way you can avoid friction with the law is by ensuring that you buy the HID kits from reputable brands. They should also be manufactured from high-quality factories that comply with the OEM standards.

Your car’s headlights should also be issued an ECE R99 certification. To achieve this, your car’s entire headlight system should be replaced with a new kit specifically designed for Xenon bulbs. Otherwise, if you’re planning to modify your former halogen headlights (using HID conversion kit), then the headlights must be reassessed for compliance then assigned an ‘E’ mark.

Now, although these options are costly and time-consuming, they’re usually worth it if you’re not looking to void your car’s warranty and insurance.


Understanding Xenon Headlights

Now, for you to understand xenon headlights, you’ll first need to understand what exactly xenon is. Briefly, Xenon is an element in the periodic table that has a symbol Xe and an atomic no. 54. It exists as a gas, most specifically, a noble gas with distinct characteristics.

Although it’s odorless, colorless, tasteless, and non-reactive, this gas can expel short wavelengths of ultraviolet radiation, in the form of white/bluish intense light when it’s subjected to electrical discharge. Although this noble gas has so many uses, which, of course, range from illumination, lasers, anesthetics, to sports doping, one of its major uses is in the roads where it’s used inside xenon headlights.

So, if you’ve been wondering how these bulbs work, then I believe you’re now aware that they use xenon gas to glow whenever electric current is passed through them. Now, unlike halogen headlights, xenon headlights come with several different components that allow them to work in a completely different manner.

  • Gas Discharge Lamp:

At the core of the headlight, there’s the xenon bulb itself. The bulb is what traps the xenon gas inside. It also contains two electrodes on each side that are responsible for passing electric current to charge xenon gas.

  • Xenon Ballast:

This device is the ignition point. When the headlights are switched on, this device is the one responsible for generating the voltage required to power and ignite xenon gas inside the bulb. Once the ballast is ignited, it generates a voltage. This electric current (which flows through the electrodes) ionizes xenon gas causing it to power up and increase the temperatures inside the bulb at a rapid pace.

Since there are other gases inside the bulb, once they collide and mix, they elevate the temperatures, inside the bulb, which is enough to illuminate the bulbs at full functionality for a longer time. In most cases, these gases take some time to get ionized. This is hence the main reason why xenon headlights take a few seconds to fully illuminate when they’re switched on.

  • Ignition:

Just as its name suggests, this component is the one responsible for triggering the spark when you switch on the headlights. It has a metal shielding and it’s the one that bridges the connection between the two electrodes.


Why are Xenon Headlights Far Much Superior?

Now, when you compare them with halogen headlights, xenon headlights are far much superior in so many ways. Although most cars you’ll see on the road use the standard halogen bulbs, the light they illuminate is nothing when compared to what HID headlights can do. In that regard, let’s discuss some factors that make xenon headlights the very best.

  • Brighter and Whiter Light:

Perhaps one of the major reasons why xenon bulbs are far much superior is due to their great brightness. The bright white light they produce is a huge advantage that allows motorists to see the road clearly when driving at night. This way, you can easily spot obstacles such as potholes and bumps and avoid them as much as possible.

Taking an example of 35 watts xenon bulb, this bulb can produce about 3000 lumens and a color temperature of 4000 – 6000 Kelvin. This is enough to mimic natural daylight and is different from a35 watts halogen bulb that only affords 1400 lumens and a warmer color temperature of 3200 – 5000 Kelvin.

  • Broader Coverage:

Apart from being bright, xenon headlights offer illumination to a broader coverage as compared to halogen headlights. Their bright white light travels further and wider down the road allowing you to spot obstacles even on the sides. This is a huge advantage when driving at night near parks as you can clearly spot wild animals crossing the road or simply obstacles on the edges of the road.

  • Lasts Longer:

When it comes to longevity, xenon bulbs are hailed for their long-lasting characteristics. This is all thanks to the xenon gas inside the bulbs that don’t get insufficient any sooner. This allows xenon bulbs to go a long way, from about 2000 – 5000 hours before begging for a replacement. This is quite the contrary with halogen bulbs that only take between 400 – 600 hours before they’re replaced.

  • Energy Efficiency:

Now, halogen bulbs depend on a glowing filament that heats the tungsten to glow. On the other hand, xenon bulbs depend on xenon gas that is ionized by two electrically charged electrodes to produce light. Charging xenon gas requires a little bit of electric current. Due to this reason, these bulbs end up saving your car’s battery a huge chunk of power that enough to power other electrical components within the car.


Downsides of Xenon Headlights

  • Strong Glare:

Although their white brightness will appear fascinating to a driver, they’re more of a nightmare to pedestrians and oncoming motorists as they tend to blind them by reflecting light in their mirrors. This is quite dangerous to oncoming traffic as the strong glare can cause accidents.

To solve this problem, most car-makers prefer to mix both xenon and halogen bulbs to specifically use halogen bulbs to represent the high beam lights. Now, the downside to this is that you’ll need to keep replacing the halogen bulbs more regularly.

  • Costly:

Although they’re bright, energy-efficient and long-lasting, xenon headlights are very expensive to install. The reason why they’re costly is that you’ll need to replace the former halogen system with an HID conversion kit to let you customize your car with any xenon bulbs of your choice. Secondly, installation requires a professional meaning you have to dig deeper into your wallet to pay for the installation.


Future of Xenon Headlights

Before we conclude, I would like to mention that the future of xenon headlights has since been sealed thanks to the introduction of bi-Xenon headlights. Now, the reason why these headlights were developed was specifically to solve the problem related to strong glare.

Although the bulbs are still the same, the headlights have totally been modified to allow xenon bulbs to take care of both high and low beams as opposed to using halogen bulbs. Now, this has been achieved in two ways.

First, it has been achieved by using a mechanical system to tilt the bulbs upwards and downwards depending on the scenario. Secondly, a reflector has been used to reflect the light on any direction of your choice including sideways when making a turn. So, with the bi-Xenon technology already underway, it’s now clear that xenon headlights will continue to impress enthusiastic motorists for quite a long time.

However, though, this technology has one major flaw. It has totally over-relied on mechanical systems, which is quite risky following their untimely failure over time.



Although the bi-Xenon technology is being criticized for its overreliance on mechanical systems, we can’t ignore the efficiency and reliability of its young predecessor, the xenon headlights. These headlights are extremely bright and are considered the very best thus explaining the reason why they’re mostly installed in new high-standard vehicles such as BMWs, Mercedes, Audi, and Land Rovers among others.

Finally, if you’re planning to upgrade your auto’s headlights from halogen to xenon, don’t forget to buy xenon conversion kits from reputable dealers. Remember, the only road-legal xenon headlights are the ones that are already factory-fitted. Anything less than that will need to be recessed thoroughly to guarantee its authenticity.

If you happen to inspect the interior of a car of any sophisticated music lover, then you won’t miss components such as midranges, subwoofer, crossovers, and high-power amplifiers. With these essential elements, your car’s audio system is perceived to be complete allowing you to enjoy high-quality music with enthusiasm. Now, although you’ll enjoy high-quality music, most people start complaining of low voltage conditions hence leading to the topic of car audio capacitor vs battery and which between the two can truly stand out.

If you’re a naïve driver, you’ll notice that your car’s electrical system, such as the headlights and the dashboard lights, tend to dim whenever your audio system plays heavy bass notes from the subwoofer. If you happen to visit your local audio expert, they will definitely tell you that the low voltage is ideally caused by insufficient current supply to your hungry amplifier.

The solution? Well, the answer lies in choosing between adding a secondary battery or a stiffening capacitor. Although this is a discussion that should have been planned way before you installed your car’s audio system, there’s a solution to it so please read on.


Car Audio Capacitor vs Battery: An Ultimate Guide

Do you Even Need a Secondary Power Source?

We are all different. While some people might require a secondary source of power to feed their high-end aftermarket audio systems, there are others who are less familiar with these demanding audio consoles. To them, adding another source of power besides their factory-installed car batteries might sound counter-intuitive.

This is, by the way, one of the main reason why these factory-installed car batteries are unable to feed your aftermarket car audio system since they’re only designed to provide power for basic functions of your vehicles such as starting the engine and providing power to light up the headlight and dashboard lights.

Just to explain further, an ordinary car battery uses about 40 – 50% of its amperage to cater to basic electrical usage in your car saving the rest of the 50% energy. If you have a powerful acoustic car audio system, this remaining 50% amperage will basically not be enough to feed your high wattage amplifier.

This is, therefore, the main reason why your car’s electrical components such as the headlights and the dashboard lights will dim often whenever you play loud bass sounds. By the way, in a worst-case scenario, this rapid drop of electrical voltage might even damage your expensive car audio system or even reduce the performance of your subwoofer.

So, if you’re the one we’re talking to, then yes! You’ll definitely need to add a secondary power source to compensate for the rapid drop in voltage.


Understanding Electrical Power

Before we go deeper into this topic, we thought it would be nice if we could explain more about power ratings to make it easier for you to understand the various concepts related to batteries and capacitors. Now, in this topic, some of the common terms you’ll come across to are wattage, voltage, and amperage.

First, there’s voltage (V) which is basically the measure of electrical force. It’s actually more like pressure in a pipe. In most cases, car batteries are designed to offer at least 12V worth of power to be used by basic automotive electrical systems.

Next, there’s amperage (amps) which is referred to as the rate of flow of electric current. It’s more like the speed at which water flows through a pipe. To improve the amperage, or rather the rate by which electric current flows, you only need to increase the size of the wires and reduce the distance of electric flow to improve efficiency.

Finally, there’s the wattage which is the measure of electrical power. Also known as total power, wattage can be calculated by multiplying voltage by amperage.


What are Stiffening Capacitors and What are Secondary Batteries?

Now, this is where things start getting interesting. Briefly, a battery and a capacitor are not that dissimilar since they address almost a similar issue. Also, both of them are intended to store secondary energy which can be used when the need arises. However, they do have some notable differences that differentiate them from each other.

What’s a Capacitor?

For those who don’t know, a capacitor is a cylindrical (and in some rare cases rectangular) device that’s used to buffer electrical current very rapidly. These devices store energy but they release it very rapidly whenever the need arises.

The main reason why they’re preferred is due to their rapid charging and discharging advantage that allows them to frequently deliver huge bursts of energy whenever there’s a potential shortage.

What About Secondary Battery?

In most cases, a second battery is usually a high-capacity battery that’s more powerful than your factory-installed car battery. As we mentioned earlier, your car’s factory-installed battery is designed to address your car’s basic electrical demands.

So, to boost its performance, a secondary battery is added which provides plenty of reserve amperage enough to handle the influx electrical demand by your car’s audio system. Although it solves the problem, there are various pros and cons you’ll have to deal with which we’ll discuss later on in this insightful guide.


What’s the Difference Between Batteries and Capacitors?

Now, both the capacitor and secondary battery are designed to store energy right? However, some major differences between these two sets them apart from each other. So, in this section, we’ll discuss some of those factors that set these two audio power sources apart.

First and foremost, capacitors are designed to store their charge or energy in the form of an electric field. On the other hand, batteries are designed to store their energy in chemical form. This difference in energy storage methods plays a key role in dictating the speed by which energy is discharged.

For the case of capacitors, their energy storage mechanism (electric field) is what allows them to charge and discharge really fast as compared to batteries. This hence makes them the best for powering demanding audio systems as compared to batteries.

Let’s assume your car is demanding more electrical power than what a capacitor can offer. In such a scenario, a powerful secondary battery will generally stand out as compared to a capacitor.

You see, since a car battery doesn’t recharge and discharge faster than a capacitor, it provides additional reserve power that can be used by your audio system alongside other electrical parts of the car without causing any voltage drop. For effective performance, always connect the primary and the secondary batteries in sequence.

Still, on the mode of operation, there’s another, quite hidden difference between these two energy storage units. This is only visible once you understand them better or when you go through a painful experience. Starting with the capacitor, we mentioned how excellent they are in handling short bursts of energy.

Now, this advantage can only be enjoyed when the car’s engine is running. This makes the capacitor a better option when listening to full blast music when your car is in motion. On the other hand, a secondary battery can store energy much longer making it the best to enjoy full blast music even when the car is off.

In fact, a good example of scenarios where a second battery becomes an excellent investment is when you’re going out for camping or holiday/during a vacation in the countryside. In such cases, you’ll take a while before your engine starts (especially if you’re planning to spend two or three days). If you’ll be listening to music, a secondary battery will help to prevent your audio system from draining the primary battery.

However, if your itinerary only allows you to listen to music while on the wheel, then a capacitor is the better option. Why exactly? Now, when the engine is running, the second battery is recharge. By doing so, it will act as an additional load forcing the alternator to overwork in order to meet all the electrical requirements for all the loads. When I mention other loads, what I’m referring to generally are the headlights, dashboard lights, the two batteries (primary and secondary) and any other component that draws energy from the alternator.


Pros and Cons of Car Audio Capacitors


  • Illuminated Display: The first major advantage of car audio capacitors is the illuminated LED display. This digital three-digit display gives you a clear view of the current voltage of the capacitor to let you know whether the voltage is high or low.
  • Fast Charging: Since more capacitors are 1 – 10 Farad capacitors, charging them takes a very short time making them the best for delivering energy as fast as it’s needed.
  • Super Lightweight: Another huge advantage of capacitors is that they’re relatively light and compact thus allowing them to fit in the tightest of spaces.
  • Audible Tones: This is another huge feature that makes capacitors highly reliable. With audible tones, you’ll always be informed of cases such as reverse polarity, low and overvoltage.
  • Surge Protection: Most capacitors are designed with a high working voltage alongside a surge protection that keeps them safe from extremely high voltage.
  • Attractive Finish: Last but not least, capacitors come with attractive chrome, aluminum or black finish that allows them to blend well with most of your interior car parts.


  • Expensive: In most cases, car audio capacitors are considered much more expensive than batteries yet they perform the same function.
  • Large size: Some models of capacitors are much larger in size making it quite challenging to store them. Some have irregular molded shapes that make it difficult to fit them in tight spaces.
  • Complex Installation: When it comes to installation, installing an audio capacitor can be challenging as it requires a lot of technical know-how. This can make it easy to mess up along the way causing serious damage to your expensive audio system or the capacitor if you’re not careful.
  • Additional Strain: Just like the rest of your electrical systems, a capacitor adds more strain to your alternator as it requires to be recharged.


Pros and Cons of a Secondary Battery


  • Affordability: One of the main reasons why most people prefer a second battery to a capacitor is affordability. You see, a capacitor does the same job as a second battery but at a much higher price. So, instead of having to end up with a dent in your wallet, why not consider a battery?
  • Space-Saving: Another huge advantage of choosing a secondary battery is because batteries are more compact hence can fit in tight spaces where capacitors cannot.
  • Sufficient Power Supply: If you have a sophisticated car audio system, then your factory-installed car battery will generally struggle to feed your amplifier with power. As a result, most of the other electrical parts of the car will fail to function due to a rapid drop in voltage. So, to solve this common problem, a second battery will generally need to be added to generate plenty of reserve energy to power up your acoustic audio system.
  • Extra Power Source for Stationary Cars: So, whether you’re RVing or simply packing your car in a packing lot, one way you can enjoy your time is to listen to music. As a result, your battery might drain causing more problems.
  • So to prevent that, second batteries are added in the equation to provide extra power when your car is packed.


  • Leakage: One of the worst things about second batteries is that they can leak the chemical component to other parts of the car if mishandled.
  • Unnecessary Load: Just like in capacitors, a secondary battery recharges whenever your car’s engine is running. This leads to the overwhelming of the alternator, which results in straining of the battery.



Finally, choosing between a capacitor and a battery is a rather complex endeavor that seems complicated. However, to ensure that you make the right judgement, you’ll need to first understand the performance of your primary battery and the amount of extra power you’ll need to feed your hungry amplifier.

As we have already discussed in this guide, everything lies upon you to choose what you think will work for your audio system better. Whether you need a capacitor to take care of short bursts of energy or whether you need a second battery to provide ample power storage when the car is off, then it’s all totally up to you.

The modern kitchen is equipped with important pieces that are designed to accomplish a variety of tasks. There’s the stove whose key role is to cook, refrigerators to keep food cold and the knife whose key role is to chop. But, with all these tools in your kitchen, other types of equipment that are definitely a must-have in any kitchen setting are the kitchen exhaust systems.

Regardless of its design, a kitchen exhaust system is a key component in any kitchen setting as it allows contaminated air to escape through the ductwork to the exterior. This means that greases, odors, fumes and airborne combustion products can be sucked out with ease leaving the air inside clean and fresh.

For those homeowners that are enthusiast cookers, you know how airborne greases can damage your expensive kitchen equipment when it gets to contact. For the case of commercial kitchens, you are aware of the possibility of fire hazards when you don’t have the right kitchen exhaust systems. So, with the right exhaust system, you’re able to take care of fumes, greases, and gases from your kitchen to keep it clean.


Kitchen Exhaust Systems: An Ultimate Guide


But, What Exactly is a Kitchen Exhaust System?

Now, kitchen exhaust systems are often known by so many names. Some call them kitchen filters, vents, grates, louvers, hoods, and vent-a-hood among other names. Now, despite their many names, exhaust systems have three components that can easily define them.

  • The Hood:

The hood is considered the first line of capturing contaminants. It’s the noticeable part of the kitchen exhaust system that lies above your stove, fryer or cooktop. Its main purpose is to suck contaminated air then funnel it through the vents into the exhaust system where it’s ducted to the outside.

Standard exhaust hoods are made of stainless steel with a thickness of about 16 to 18 gauge to prevent gases, greases, and odors from escaping to the atmosphere.

Now, there are two types of exhaust hoods available in the market. One is the Type I hoods that are typically installed above the stove or fryer to suck smokes and greases. The second is the Type II hoods that suck out excess heat and moisture from your kitchen.

About the Type I hoods, there are two main categories involved which are the wall canopy hoods and the island exhaust hoods.

  1. Wall Canopy Hoods: Are Type I hoods that are usually mounted on one side of the wall just above the stovetop.
  2. Island Exhaust Hoods: These ones are also Type I hoods but are mounted on the top of the stove rather than being on the side.


  • Ductwork:

The next component that comes after the hood is the ductwork. The ductwork is done on the inside of the hood where it vents the exhaust fumes to the outside of the building.


Note: How you connect the ductwork will greatly depend on the design of the building.


That’s the reason why some designs have vertical ductwork that goes straight to the rooftop while others have a varying degree of vertical and horizontal ductwork that twist and turn through the artic to the outside.

As we all know, grease, whether solid, vapor or liquid, is highly flammable. In fact, it has inherent chemistry that qualifies it as a hydrocarbon. Due to this reason, the ductwork you employ should have a high fire-resistant rating that can help to prevent fire accidents in case of an excessive buildup of grease.

The ductwork used can either have its own fire-resistant rating or you can use a metallic duct that’s field fabricated. A field fabricated ductwork usually consists of 16-gauge carbon steel that has been fabricated with certain fireproofing materials such as; Rockwool, ceramic fibers, calcium silicate, endothermic materials and intumescent.


  • Exhaust Fan:

Finally, the last component that makes up a kitchen exhaust system is the exhaust fan. Depending on the design, exhaust fans can be designed to rest at the top of the building, mounted on the side of the wall or can be placed inside a Pollution Control Unit (PCU) where it can be less susceptible to damage.

So, with the exhaust fan mounted on the outside, sucking out greases, odors, steams and kitchen contaminants are much easier as air has to pass through the ductwork, the air purifier and finally out of the building.


What are the Benefits of Kitchen Exhaust Systems?

Exhaust systems are known by so many names such as extractor fans, exhaust plumes, fume extractors, and electric chimneys among other names. They’re installed in kitchens to serve the purpose of removing greases, odors, smokes, and humidity from the interior atmosphere. If you’re wondering why exactly you need an exhaust fan in your kitchen, here are four main benefits of having one.

  • Controlling Humid Air

This is one of the key reasons why an exhaust system is installed in your kitchen. Steam and constant humidity are some of the key players that recuperate the growth of mold and mildew in your kitchen. Thankfully, an exhaust system in your kitchen, whether mounted on the ceiling or high on the wall, can help to pull out humid air and moisture from the kitchen atmosphere leaving it dry and unfavorable for mold to breed.

  • Regulating Steam and Odors

Regulating steam, odors, and fumes are one way of guaranteeing kitchen cleanliness to the maximum. If vaporized greases and steam from your food are not sucked efficiently, they can easily stick on the walls or on top of other kitchen appliances resulting in damages. So, to avoid these damages, a kitchen exhaust system is an absolute necessity.

  • Removal of Excess Heat

Although a kitchen exhaust system doesn’t actually cool your kitchen like how a fan or an air conditioner does, it does play a pivotal role in removing hot air and excess heat from the kitchen. Remember, hot air coming off your cooker and heater rises causing damages to your ceiling, overhead lights and walls. So, to prevent such damages, an exhaust system is mounted on the ceiling to take care of the excess heat by sucking it up through the ductwork to the outside.

  • Improves Your Property Resale Value

One of the major improvements in most real estate investments today is to have a modern attractive kitchen. One of the things that can affect the value of your property is a kitchen exhaust system. Having the right exhaust system can improve the value of your property while a poorly designed hood can only lower the quality.


Types of Kitchen Exhaust Systems

Kitchen exhaust hoods come in a variety of designs from simple exhaust fans to the complex ceiling and wall-mounted units. Whether it’s a residential home kitchen or a commercial enterprise, you will definitely require to set up a vent hood to suck out contaminated air from the kitchen to the outside atmosphere.

Now, if you’re less acquitted with exhaust systems, finding the right extractor fan that can take care of your venting requirements can be challenging. Thankfully, this section has taken care of that by keeping you informed with six of these common kitchen exhaust systems in the market.


  • Under-Cabinet Range Hoods

The under-cabinet exhaust system is typically found in almost any residential kitchen making it one of the most common types of air vents in the market. Just as its name suggests, this type of range hood is mounted just underneath your cabinet close enough to your cooker or heater.

What makes this type of exhaust system so popular is its immense versatility and easy installation that lets it mount in almost any kitchen space. However, though, you need to calculate the dimensions of the under-cabinet before you can select the right range hood to install.

Once you’ve mounted the hood, proper ductwork will need to be considered which will have to go through the cabinet to the attic and finally to the exterior wall.


  • Wall-Mounted Range Hood

Another exhaust system that’s quite common in most modern kitchens is the wall-mounted range hood. Unlike its previous under-cabinet counterpart, a wall-mounted model doesn’t mount beneath your cabinet but rather mounts on the wall meaning you have to remove one cabinet to create some room.

Sometimes, instead of removing a cabinet to pave way for this type of installation, you can simply install it during the initial construction project where it tends to fit and blend perfectly with the rest of the cabinetry around it.

Unlike the under-cabinet hood, this one is very easy to duct to the outside as you only need to create the ductwork vertically to the ceiling or through the wall to the exterior opening. Now, unlike most other range hoods, this one offers one of the best decorative elements thanks to its ability to add some extra looks to your kitchen.


  • Island/Ceiling Mounted Hoods

Sometimes your kitchen can be an island design where the cooker is located somewhere at the center of the kitchen. In such a design, you can’t expect an exhaust system to be mounted on the wall or under the cabinet as it won’t be effective.

Therefore, the only option is to mount the hood on the ceiling at the center of the kitchen just above the cooker. With these kinds of range hoods, the hood is designed to hang far down near the cooker and is supported by vertical ductwork that goes through the ceiling to the outside of the building.

For maximum efficiency, it’s highly recommended that you select a hood with a wider opening. However, Island mounted hoods are considered sleek, stylish and elegant though they tend to be a bit more expensive than the rest of the exhaust hood designs.


  • Downdraft Vent Hood

If your kitchen is lacking enough space at the top, you don’t have to worry as there’s a smart solution for that. The downdraft vent hood is one of the best solutions for such cases. Although it’s less common as compared to most of its counterparts, the downdraft vent hood works in a very interesting mechanism where it sucks odors, fumes and vaporized greases from your cooker through the vents just beside your cooker to the outside.

However, though, these range hoods are only usable if you have a cooker around. Besides that, they’re excellent space savers and are highly recommended for small kitchens thanks to their excellent ventilation capabilities and eye-catching designs.


  • Wall Ventilation Fans

Another excellent option that’s quite common in most residential kitchens is the wall ventilation fans. This type of exhaust system is quite helpful in a situation where the kitchen ventilation system is very poor. However, comparing it with its counterparts such as the wall-mounted, under-cabinet and island hoods, this type of ventilation system is not efficient enough to suck out odors and fumes.

Although they’re quite weak, these exhaust hoods are really helpful when it comes to removing odors and smokes. To guarantee their efficiency, you have to match the size of the exhaust hood with the stove to reduce the messy look on the surface and reduce any chances of fire accidents.


  • Ventilator Power Pack Hoods

In case you don’t like any of the above exhaust hoods, then you might like the flawless design of the ventilator power pack. Always open to ample design customizations, this type of vent hood can fit in almost any kitchen setup without having to interfere with the existing cabinetry.

When setting up this range hood, you don’t have to remove any cabinets to create space. Instead, all you need to do is to find the right space where you can mount this extractor hood. Although they’re compact, these hoods have very high CFM rating that makes them the best for busy kitchens


Types of Commercial Kitchen Exhaust Hood Systems

So, if you’re operating a commercial kitchen or a busy residential kitchen that holds large cooking projects, then perhaps you might need to consider mounting a commercial kitchen exhaust system to take care of the high cooling frequency.

Also known as Type I commercial hoods, these exhaust hoods are specifically designed to exhaust greases, smoke, odors, and oils from your kitchen. In addition to that, these mega hoods can remove heat and moisture from the interior atmosphere to reduce the risks of mold, mildew and bacterial contamination.

Their design comprises removable baffle filters that help to extra oils and greases through the ductwork to the outside to reduce any chances of fire hazards.

So, if your busy kitchen is calling for something more than just an ordinary range hood, here are three commercial-grade extractor hoods that might be of help.


  • Standard Design Commercial Grade Hoods

One of the smart commercial extractor hoods options in the market right now is the standard design hoods. Perfect for both commercial and residential use, these hoods are mounted just above the fryers, cookers or stoves to remove large amounts of greases, odors, moisture and steams to keep your kitchen atmosphere dry.

What makes them so special is the fact that they do all these without facing any mechanical damages. However, to maintain a perfect working order, you have to service them regularly by replacing the steel filters to improve efficiency.


  • Ventless Hoods

In situations where you’re unable to vent contaminated air from your kitchen to the outside, a ventless exhaust hood might seem to suit the situation. These hoods are designed to suck out greases, vapors, odors, smokes, and steam from your kitchen and instead recycle clean fresh air back to your kitchen.

For maximum efficiency, these hoods are fitted with three steel filters that are assigned to perform a particular task. The first two filters filter out greases and ash while the third filter screens out smokes, vapors and other small contaminants from your kitchen.


  • Exhaust-Only Hoods

Finally, we have the exhaust-only hoods. Unlike other hoods, these ones are quite different in terms of their operation. Since they don’t have any filters, they work in a straightforward form where they suck greases, odors, steams, and vapor from your kitchen at high CFM to exhaust them directly to the outside.


How do you Install a Kitchen Exhaust System?

As we’ve already mentioned, a kitchen exhaust system is an effective way of dealing with stubborn greases, vapor, odors and small debris from your busy kitchen. Now, following major improvements in most housing projects, contractors are designing new housing property with exhaust systems already pre-installed during construction.

Sadly, not all houses have extractor hoods already built on them. And because you’ll require an exhaust hood in your kitchen, you’ll inevitably need to have one. So, if you’re the one we’re talking to, here’s a simple step-by-step procedure on how you can install a solid kitchen exhaust system.

  • Step 1. Do Planning:

Before you commence the process of installing an exhaust system, you first need to do some calculations regarding the ceiling exhaust hole you’ll need to cut. You also need to consider the length of the piping and the type of range hood you’ll need to mount.

Make sure the hood you select is wide enough to cover the entire stovetop. Also, ensure that the type of exhaust hood you select has the right CFM rating to allow the unit to suck as much air contaminants as possible.

  • Step 2. Readying the Vent:

Once you’ve figured out everything, the next step is to mark the walls and the ceiling where you’re going to mount the hood and the ductwork. To do this, use the instructions in your product manual to determine where exactly you’re going to mark spots on the wall. Using a drill, cut the holes gently. To ensure that you don’t mark the holes wrongly, you can consider using a water level just to make sure the holes are as straight as possible.

  • Step 3.Check for Obstacles:

Sometimes the drilling process can be a smooth one and other times, it can be quite tough. What do we mean by tough? Supposing you come across obstacles such as piping and wiring, then you have to figure out a way of working around them.

  • Step 4. Drill the Holes:

The drilling process will heavily depend on where you’re mounting the exhaust hood. If the hood is a wall-mounted model, you’ll have to drill the holes for the screws on the wall. On the other hand, if the hood is an under-cabinet, then you’ll have to drill the holes beneath the existing cabinetry. When you’re done, drill one more hole for the wiring.

  • Step 5. Back to the Ceiling Hole:

Once you drill the wall mounting or under-cabinet holes, locate a spot on the ceiling just above the cooktop (where you’ll fit the exhaust hood) and drill a hole according to your intended ductwork.

  • Step 6. Connect the Ductwork:

Now, inside the attic, connect every part of the ductwork together carefully using duct tape. This will help to prevent the leakage of any contaminated air from your kitchen to the attic just above.

  • Step 7. Cut an Exhaust Wall:

While still on the attic, select a spot where you’ll drill the exhaust hole. Use a cordless drill to drill the hole then use a vent cap to seal the exterior wall. Use silicone to seal any seams between the cap and the wall. Also, use the duct tape to seal any seams on the curved areas of the ducting pipe.

  • Step 8. Connect the Wires:

Once you’re through with the ductwork, the next step is to do the wiring. Here, you only need to run the cable from the wall to the inside of the hood where you’ll connect the fan.

Note: from this point, you have to observe extreme care as any wiring issues can damage your exhaust hood or cause an electrical fire hazard. Therefore, it’s okay if you can contact an electrician to do the wring for you.


  • Step 9. Reattach the Filters and the Front Grille:

So, once you’ve completed the entire project, reattach the filters back on and attach the front grille. Turn the main power on and switch on the fan to test its performance.



As you can see, having the right exhaust system in your kitchen is key if you’re really looking to get rid of odors, smokes, vapor, and greases. Whether it’s intended for commercial or for residential use, understanding the various aspects of these ventilation hoods is quite critical as your kitchen can never be at its best without them.

Although most people confess loving their decorative characteristics, exhaust hoods have a lot under their belt. Therefore, to ensure that they perform at their very best, it’s imperative that you pay special attention to their design mechanism to keep your facility both safe and clean.

You may be reading this article for the first time because you are dealing with LED lighting. Common Problems with LED Lighting can come in many forms. However, you do not need to worry because we got all the answers right here for you.

LED lights are awesome additions to vehicles, homes, and businesses. However, problems can arise that include, but are not limited to, things like flickering, buzzing, or the bulbs do not give off much light, cause glaring, and much more. If you do not get on these problems as soon as possible, you may have damage to your bulbs or circuits soon.

So, without further ado, let us get into solving some of the major problems with LED lighting. This way, you can enjoy them in the way they were meant to be. Additionally, you will be a championing of solving and repairing the issue. Many may flock for your services.


Common Problems With LED Lighting & Solutions


We have brought together the top 10 problems that you may run into when it comes to LED lighting. Each category will explain the problem at the solution for you to take in. Then, you can get to work on the project at hand.


  • #1 – Flickering Issues Due To A Loose Wire

One common problem that you might run into is your LED lights flickering for all the world to see. If you have seen strobing lights before, there might not be that much of a difference, unfortunately. With poor quality bulbs, LEDs and floodlights can be seen with the lights going down and up periodically, without anyone controlling them this way.

Usually, flickering happens when the Hz is between 80 and 100. The naked eye can see this, and it may start to be a distraction to people. Over time, flickering lights can do a number on people’s bodies. For example, flicking lights can causing vomiting, fatigue, headaches. The worst-case scenario is epilepsy.

When it comes to a loose wire, the bulb and the circuit are not on the same plane with one another. As these flashing lights take place, know that there is an electromagnetic interference going on that you need to solve. The best way to fix this problem is by inspecting the connections. Some may have a break or a disconnect. To solve the problem, reconnect or replace the wire with a new one, and your LED lights should work well again.


  • #2 – Lights Flicking Due To Bad Quality LED Lights

If you purchased cheap and inexpensive LED lights, you may notice flickering issues as well. You certainly will not get your money’s worth here. With bad soldering, your LED chips with gold wire can start to loosen over time. Additionally, if your LED lights have a bad PCB design, you will see a fluctuation of light coming your way at different times.

When looking to solve this problem, you will need to buy better-LED lighting. Reputable brands like Osram Square and CREE XTE would be a great place to start. You will have better soldering technology with no more flickering. What a concept!


  • #3 – Loose Bulbs and Bad Dimmer Set-Ups

Sometimes, your flickering light issue has more to do with the fixture being tightened enough. If there is poor contact with the bulbs, the current with choppy at best. After you inspect your LED lights, shut off your bulbs altogether.

Also, kill the power supply as well. This will make sure you are safe when working on the LED lights. No one wants electrical shock. With your room completely dark, use a portable light to help give you light when you are tightening your bulbs. However, if it is light outside, you can use natural light to help you out in this process.

Maybe you have a bad dimmer setup, which is the problem with your LEDs. Depending on your dimmer type, you can pinpoint the problem with your LED lights. The most common dimmers include the Constant Current Reduction (CCR) dimmer and the Pulse Width Modulation (PWM) dimmer.

The CCR dimmer changes up the current of a circuit to give off different levels of brightness. With a power supply of 0 to 10 volts, a signal is sent to tell the lights what to do. With a continuous current, there should be no pulse going on with your circuit. If you have problems with this dimmer, go with a digital set-up to fix any issues.

The PWM dimmer, on the other hand, gives off a pulse where voltage is sent to the bulbs through the duration that they are used. This type of dimmer limits the overall brightness. You will notice the light going off and on quickly when the dimmer is in use.

If you have a dimmer that leaves much to be desire, the electrical system is sending out improper pulse signals. This will lead to the dreaded dimming. So, the problem can be fixed if you get some better LEDs that are digitals at their core. Certainly, do not be cheap here when it comes to LED lights.


  • #4 – Broken Power Supply

Are you using LED lights in the backyard of your house? When a power supply has a bad driver, you will see some more fun flickering. Once again, know your product before you purchase it. Look at the driver unit specifically. One of the best power supplies comes from Mean Well for LED lights. Most of these lights do not have a failure rate after the first 2 years.

However, if your power supply does break down, you need to buy something new. With that in mind, just go Mean Well to start. You will not be disappointed at all.


  • #5 – Extra High Wattage Issues At Home Or In The Sports Venue

If you are using high-powered machinery wherever you are running LEDs as well, you could start to have some flickering problems. Think of appliances like heaters, vacuums, air conditioning units, etc. Your power supply might not be able to handle LEDs and other things going on at the very same time.

This could be dangerous as well. Things may begin to overheat. With that in mind, a fire could start if LEDs are not handled appropriately in your house. To fix the problem, limit some devices going off at the same time in your home, or get a bigger power supply.

When it comes to sports lighting, LEDs are some of the most common options to use. There are specific LEDs that are meant for businesses rather than residential areas. The trouble with flickering issues in sports is it can affect camera and video shots, which is quite annoying for the spectators and fans.

To fix this problem with sports lighting, go with the LedsMasters’s LED lighting. They use reduction-based dimming, which can handle 6,000 Hz of the best photography in the world. Mainly, you can see these LEDs at football stadiums, basketball arenas, and so much more.


  • #6 – Buzzing LED Noise

After flickering, you may be dealing with buzzing noises. This can mess with a musical mix. When a buzzing does happen, there is an overload in the circuit. If you were to use a dimmer that worked with 300 Watt LEDs, but you use 200 Watt bulbs, they will not work together well.

The sound comes from vibrations inside the lamp, and this is as frustrating as it comes. When this takes place, the frequencies range from 100 to 120 Hz. There is an abnormality here, but it is nothing you cannot handle.

First, inspect your bulbs. Next, look at the circuit to see if it is good to go. If you are still having a problem here, you may need to not use some of your luminaries to fix the problem.


  • #7 – Wanting More Brightness & Dealing With The Heat

When your light will not get brighter for you, there may be another LED problem on the horizon. Unfortunately, this can happen with LEDs outside and inside. Aging is one of the main reasons trouble arises. The deterioration of an LED light happens after 80,000 hours of use with an L70 bulb. After that amount of time, the output of lumens will fall to 70% of its original brightness. This is no good for LED users.

You may run into situations were your LED lights can handle more hours of life. In today’s day and age, many bulbs range from 50,000 hours to 100,000. This means that bulbs can last for decades. Of course, the quick fix here is the replace the bulbs if you run into this problem.

A loose wire could be a simple problem for buzzing as well. With the power off, reconnect the wire and you should be good to go. Then, your lumen input will be good to go again. Or maybe you have a bad power supply. With voltage and current rates needing to be connected, the best brightness will not happy if you have bad inputs for your LEDs. Buy something quality to fix this problem.

You certainly do not want to have LEDs that give off a lot of heat. Luckily, by nature, LEDs limit heating issues, but LED lamps can still have problems that you need to be aware of. The more heat that is given off of LEDs, the less bright the lights will be. When LEDs are at their best, they hit a temperature of 25 degrees Celcius. However, if the environment of the lights gets up to 40 to 60 degrees Celcius, then the white light drops in brightness by 65 to 80%.

What about the cold? Do fridged temperatures cause problems here as well? On the contrary, colder weather is known to help LED lighting. Some say the light even gets brighter with colder temperatures.

Ultimately, if you are using LEDs in residential and business settings, keep your temperatures lower for best use. However, if you require LEDs for industrial use, things start to change. Industrial plants, like nuclear power and foundries, can have temperatures over 80 degrees Celcius. Still, they are not using a run of the mill LED lights here. These are reinforced LEDs that are required. If not, a regular bulb will be very dim or even break.


  • #8 – Dimmer Drama

Maybe you have bought all the right bulbs, have tested them in and out, but you are still dealing with problems. The dimmer is the next place to check things out. If you cannot dim your LED lights, you may be having a problem with the dimmer itself.

Of course, checking the bulb for dimmable characteristics is first and foremost. So, do not buy your bulbs until you are positively sure things will work out for you. If you do somehow buy a non-dimmable LED, they will stay on. But, you will lose brightness. Also, you may be causing a risk to yourself and others because the LED light could be damaged and break altogether.


  • #9 – The Glaring Issue

After buzzing and flickering, glare is the next issue. Think about your experiences with a glare before we talk more about LEDs. You know the awful experience. You are out in the sun and you cannot see ahead because the light is blinding. Sure, you may have glasses and a dash visor when you are in your vehicle. But, alas, glare is still in your eyes.

This is the same experience that you will have with LED lights that have a glaring issue. This glare comes straight from the light source itself. Vision can be altered and the living quality becomes limited. Have you tried reading words on a page with a glare reflection? It does not work. Even a white glare can happen on a TV when you watch because of the sun or bulbed lights.

To try to fix this problem before it starts, decide upon the amount of light that you need and do not overdo things. When you overdo things, you get a glare. So, how should you calculate the amount of light that you need? Well, if you are putting lights in a home, think of this method. What is the square meters of the room you want to put LED lights in?

For example, let us say your room is 50 square meters. Times that by 150 lux and you get an amount of 7,500 lumens. Now, for a little more math. Most LED lights have 130 lumens per watt, which means 23 Watts per bulb. With this Watt bulb, you can add 20 to 30% to limit the glare and energy loss that comes with it.

How about LEDs in a garage? The lux level should be 500 because you are working more in there. Most lights are better in this situation likewise. Are you still having a glaring issue? A barn door could help bring outside light in to limit the effect of glare.

You could even create a wall cover for your lights with LEDs. This way, you would see the lights from the side. So, maybe think to do this with lighting like floodlights outside.


  • #10 – Pollution From Blue Light

The last thing to talk about with LED issues involves blue light. Blue light has been more and more prevalent, as technology has been a staple for people all around the globe. In its basic form, blue light can be good and bad for a few reasons.

Blue light can help with mood and reaction time as positives. However, your health can be impacted negatively at nighttime. What blue lights do is limit melatonin in the body and your sleep cycle can be affected in the process. Also, retinas can be damaged for the long-term. Did you know that blue light causes pollution, too?

To reduce LED blue light, consider lowering the temperature for color from 3000K to 5000K. Anything over 6000K starts to bring about blue light pollution. But, if you want warm white light, go with 3000 to 3500K for a chill experience. In the 21st Century, life is just so busy. But, with the right LED lights, without blue light, a lot of things can go well for you.



Now that we have gone through the top-10 troublesome issues with LEDs, it is time for you to figure out the problem for yourself and get to work. Most of these things can be done by you in just a few minutes. How great?

Things may take longer, but you will be able to pinpoint the problem and use LEDs the way they were intended. This way, you can enjoy them for all they are worth. They are truly an amazing piece of tech that will be around for years to come. Remember to be safe when working with electricity and everything will go smoothly.

Whether it’s a home gym, a studio or a commercial gym, a squat rack is an absolute must for any athlete or novice gym enthusiast looking to build strength and body mass. If you’re a beginner, a squat rack can be an intimidating piece due to its huge size and multiple weighing plates. But, while it may sound intimidating, a squat rack is a piece of important gym equipment in your daily workout routine. So, to enjoy its full potential, you first need to understand how to use a squat rack and most importantly, you need to know what exactly it is.

Now, most gym equipment is potentially dangerous and will require you to have a spotter around to assist you. However, with a squat rack or power rack, this is quite the opposite as they’re loaded with safety features that let you perform your fitness exercises without the assistance of a spotter. So, in this guide, we will discuss ways you can use a squat rack.


How to Use a Squat Rack – Step By Step Guide

But First, Why Buy a Squat Rack?

  • Versatility: What makes the squat rack a little more different from other weight lifting equipment is their vast versatility. This alone gives them a broader array of movement that allows you to perform deadlifts, pull-ups, squats, and presses quite easily.
  • Safety: Another reason you’ll need to buy a squat rack is their ability to hold the bar whenever you need to adjust yourself or set up your body properly. Since they’re easy to set up at home, you won’t need to have a spotter around when performing most of these exercises.
  • Space-Saving: If you need a piece of home equipment for your home gym, a squat rack is the best option. Not only is it functional, but this bodybuilding equipment is also an excellent space-saver as it doesn’t take much of your indoor space.


How Much Space do you Need to Set up a Squat Rack?

One of the most important details when choosing a squat rack for your home gym is the amount of space you’ll need to free up in a room. Ideally, most squat racks have a width of 4ft and a length of 7ft. This, therefore, means that you’ll have to calculate the space in your room to ensure that it fits the squat rack and at the same time, it leaves some space all around for easy maneuverability.

Since the bench you’re using will ideally be adjustable, you’ll hence require a space of about 10ft (L) by 7ft (W). This will help to create ample space for adjusting your bench when performing various functional exercises and still leave enough space on either side to load the weights.

Finally, you need to create some space to set up a plate storage peg. This should ideally be at the corner of the room where you’re certain you won’t be interrupted when performing your weightlifting exercises.


So, How do you Set up the Squat Rack?

Now that you have a solid understanding of what a squat rack really is, we will now go straight to our main topic on how you can use this lovely gym equipment.

And because a squat rack has immense adjustable options, there are many exercises you can perform such as bench presses, reverse flyers, back squats, shoulder presses and barbell lunges among others.

But, before you can get to any of these exercises, it’s important that you first have a basic understanding of how to use a squat rack to protect yourself against any potential accidents.

Step 1: Adjust the Safety Bar

This is the first step you need to take before you can lay down to perform any workout. Apart from offering you a high level of comfort, adjusting the safety bar will guarantee your safety as the rack is neither too high nor too low for you to reach the barbell.

Still on comfort and safety, by adjusting the safety bar correctly, you’ll have enough room to perform a variety of exercises. You’ll also be confident knowing that the weight you’re lifting can easily be held by the racks in case you fail to complete a rep.

Step 2: Loading the Bar

The next equally important step is to calculate how much weight you intend to lift. Although it may sound obvious, you need to double-check the weights on both sides to ensure that you’ve loaded equal plates. Finally, ensure that you secure the plates with clips to prevent any movement when lifting.

Step 3: Adjust the J-Hooks

Another critical part of your squat rack that needs to be examined carefully is the J-hooks. To make your weight lifting project more comfortable, you need to adjust the J-hooks in the right position. Remember, when you’re lifting weights, you won’t need to bend too low to pick the bar nor will you need to struggle to re-rack the bar when it’s too high.

Step 4: Center Everything

Finally, you need to put everything at the center of the cage for your weight lifting project to be successful. Once the bar and the bench are put in the middle, you’ll have enough space to complete your rep and still enjoy an equal weight distribution.

With That Said, Let’s Now Start Squatting

Barbell Back Squat

According to most novice gym enthusiasts, the barbell back squat is one of the most common and among the most effective exercises in the gym. So, if you’re looking to try it out, here’s a way you can perform it.

  • Step One: The first step is to set the barbell into the right position. Since you’re performing a back squat, the barbell should be positioned at a shoulder height level where your thighs will be parallel to the floor once you’re ready to lift. Make sure it’s at the same level on both sides.
  • Step Two: Once the bar is at the right level on the J-hooks, add the appropriate weights you feel are comfortable to lift. When you’re done, use collars or clips to lock the plates to prevent movement when you’re lifting.
  • Step Three: Once you’ve loaded the right plates on, you can now get ready to perform your exercise. Start by standing under the barbell with your feet apart. Lift the bar with your hands some distance apart from the center of the bar.
  • Step Four: Just before you lift the bar, position your shoulders well. Here, you need to squeeze your shoulders together to create a shelf-like surface where the bar will rest on. Also, ensure that your palms are facing forward to guarantee a perfect grip.
  • Step Five: Now take a deep breath and tighten your abdominals as if you’re expecting a punch. At the same time, lift the barbell off the J-hooks and lift it high on the ceiling. Once you’ve lifted the bar, strengthen your legs and stay fable. When lifting the weights, make sure that you lift it against your upper back.
  • Step Six: Once you lift the weight, take a step back with either leg then match it with the other leg. Adjust yourself by taking a final step just to be sure you achieve the right level of stability. Now tighten your core, straighten your back then perform your back squat while the bar is positioned at the back of your shoulders.

Bench Press

According to most experts, the bench press is one of those exercises that focus on the upper body. They’re key in upper body development and mostly focus on your pecs and triceps to give you exceptional strength and biceps. So, if this is the kind of exercise you’re planning to perform in your squat rack, here’s how you can accomplish it.

  • Step One: Since this exercise will require you to use the bench, you can kick-start this procedure by pulling the bench and positioning it at the center of the rack.
  • Step Two: Since you’ll be lying flat on the bench, you’ll have to position the barbell in a J-hook just above the bench. Make sure the bar is in a position where you can easily un-rack it without any assistance.
  • Step Three: Although your feet are not so important here, as it’s the case with squat and deadlift, it does play a key role here as it provides a strong base where you can draw your lifting power from. To guarantee this, you need to pull your legs back as close as possible to your butts while keeping the feet flat.
  • Step Four: Once you set your legs correctly, it’s now time to set your body right under the barbell. Here, you need to set the bar at the lowest safety mechanism where it will be easier for you to un-rack once you get started. Make sure the bar isn’t too close or else you’ll struggle to try pushing your upper body between the bar and the bench.

Note: One advantage of having the bar close enough to you is that it allows you to safely place it on the racks in case you’re unable to lift the weight.

  • Step Five: This is where you need to arch your back. Although most professional bodybuilders take it as a powerlifting move, in reality, it’s a way of maintaining a neutral spine and keep your back tight and safe from presses.
  • Step Six: Now grab the bar tightly with both arms and start bench pressing. You need to hold the bar with straight wrists and a lot of stability to stay safe. When you un-rack the bar, make sure that you take a deep breath before lifting the weight up.
  • Step Seven: To move the bar down, you need to take a deep breath then lower the weight. Now, the bar will have to touch your body during this process. According to most experts, the bar should touch anywhere between your nipple line and the top abdomen.
  • Step Eight: Finally, to initiate the upward move, you need to pull your legs back towards your butts then use them to draw your lifting power.

Overhead (Shoulder) Presses

Another way you can use the squat rack is by performing the overhead (shoulder) press. Quite similar to the bench press, this exercise requires you to work out your upper body.

  • Step One: Start off by positioning the bar on the J-hooks closest to your chest level depending on your height. This will allow you to load the weights easily.
  • Step Two: Once you’ve loaded the weights, get ready to lift the bar. Start by positioning your hands and your legs in a position wider than your shoulder width. Once you grab the bar on your palms, squeeze your shoulder blades together then take a deep breath to stabilize your core.
  • Step Three: Grab the bar, lift it just over your head, and lock your elbows. Hold it for a moment then lower the bar slowly towards your shoulders. That’s actually one rep. You can repeat the process as many times as you wish so long as you follow the procedure carefully and observe safety.

Barbell Lunges

Using the squat rack to perform the barbell lunges provides you with a way to exercise parts of your lower body such as the hamstrings, quads, and glutes. By using the bar, you’re able to overweight your lower body with excess weight to give it a challenging workout enough to build strength. To perform the barbell lunge, you need to;

  • Step One: Start off by positioning the barbell on a rack just below your shoulders. Load the barbell with the right weights and get ready to lift.
  • Step Two: When the bar is loaded, step under it then grab it with both hands with your palms facing forward. Lift the bar and place it at the back of your shoulders.
  • Step Three: With your back straight, step away from the rack and step one leg forward. Squat down while keeping your back straight and maintaining the right balance. Go down until your other leg’s knee gets close enough to the ground.
  • Step Four: Get back to the initial standing position by slowly pushing through your heel. When you’re up and standing, repeat the same process using the other leg.

Deadlift on a Squat Rack

The deadlift is primarily intended to develop strength in your lower and upper back, your hamstrings, and glutes. This exercise also relies on core strengths by letting you work more on your abs above anything else. So, here’s how you can perform the deadlift.

  • Step One: As usual, position the barbell on the lowest position then start loading the weights.
  • Step Two: Next, with your legs apart at shoulders width, bend down with your hips and grab the bar. When lifting, your shoulder should be slightly in front of your hands. However, the moment the bar gets past your thighs, you’ll need to retract your shoulder blades to create a rigid torso.
  • Step Three: While holding the bar on your mid-thigh level, take a deep brace to stabilize your abs (as if you’re expecting a hard punch) then lift the weight explosively above your head.
  • Step Four: Once the weight is over your head, wait for a moment then lower it gently to the ground. You can do this by bending the hips them lowering the bar slowly.


Hopefully, at this point, you’ve understood the sheer amount of work a squat rack can do. Comparing it to most gym equipment, a squat rack allows you to perform a vast range of strength exercises without exposing yourself to any serious risks.

The combination of the racks, the lunges, and the weights further add up to the easy usability of this equipment as you only need to position the barbell at a level that will suit the specific exercise you’re planning to perform.

In conclusion, squatting is a great way of improving your fitness, your posture, your muscles, and your core. It also enhances your mobility, improves athletic performance, improves circulation and digestion, and finally, speeds up the movement of oxygen and nutrients to various organs within the body.

Are you looking to get the most out of your car audio system? Well, then you need to know how to do this effectively: a Car Audio Capacitor Installation. When you are using large-type audio accessories, you must have the power to make it all work. An audio system can start to drain headlights if you do not have a capacitor to help things along the right way.

With the help of a power capacitor, you can add extra things to your vehicle that need that extra juice. Sure, a mechanic can install your capacitor, but what if I told you that you could do this all on your own. Read below to get the step by step guide to help you install your car audio capacitor. This way, you can enjoy tunes wherever you roam across the nation.


Car Audio Capacitor Installation: A Step by Step Guide


By using these steps, you will install your capacitor effectively and purposefully. This will give you the greatest chance of success for you and your ride. So, let us start by picking the right capacitor, shall we?


  • #1 – Picking The Right Capacitor

Before you install a capacitor, you got to buy one first. But, how should you make this important distinction? Let us start with how a capacitor works.

Capacitors are essentially a storage tank for all power that is electric in your car. The power is measured in Farads. One Farad is equally to 1,000 Watts of power.

Next, you need to understand whether you need an internal meter or not. Some capacitors out on the market today have a LED meter and others do not. If you do want a capacitor with a meter, you will need to wire the product, so it turns off in your car. Why does it matter? If you do not, you will kill your vehicle’s battery.

Now that you have an idea of capacitors, it is time to go out and purchase the goods. Capacitors can range from as little as $30 up to over $200. This depends on the size and all the bells and whistles. Ultimately, you can get a Farad variety without a meter, and things will go smoothly with you.


  • #2 – Installation Time

To start, be certain that your capacitor is discharged altogether. When a capacitor is charged, it can release quick bursts of energy, and this could be very dangerous to you and your health. The rule of thumb is to be careful with electricity in general.

Next, take off the ground terminal to the battery. Your electrical system will be powerless, which is a great thing for you and your health. Additionally, if you already have a capacitor in your vehicle that you are replacing, discharge it from power as well. You know why at this point. If you do not want a shock, listen up!


  • #3 – Capacitor Mounting

There is a variety of places to mount a capacitor. However, you should certainly place your capacitor by an area in your vehicle that is struggling to get power, like your headlights or your audio system. Whatever you decide, the capacitor needs to be mounted one way or another.

Ultimately, since your capacitor is a storage tank, you just need to make sure it supplements power to other electrical systems in your vehicle. When you use it in this way, you will be pleasantly surprised by what it can do for your car.


  • #4 – Connecting The Positive Terminal

No matter where you connect the capacitor, you need to attach the positive terminal of your capacitor to an amp, battery, etc. to help with additional power. What gauge should you use? I am glad you asked. Eight gauge wiring is best in this situation.


  • #5 – Needing A Negative Terminal Connection

After you have completed the positive connection to your capacitor, you need to connect the negative terminal. This can be your ground. Then, you will have all your power rolling and ready to go.


  • #6 – More Connections

With most capacitors, you will receive a remote that needs to be connected during this process as well. Mainly, this happens when you have an internal meter with your capacitor. Power this section by wiring around the remote turn on the capacitor. The power source here is 12-volts, like an amplifier or an ignition switch to give you an idea.


  • #7 – The Reconnection

Now that everything is good to go with your capacitor, it is time for the reconnection of your battery. When you reconnect the battery, then all your components should be working in your vehicle. If you do not have power to this point, then there is a problem with your electrical connections.

Have you checked all the connections and they are good to go? Then, you may have an electrical wiring issue. You can certainly troubleshoot this problem, but a trained professional may be helpful here.

On the other hand, if your capacitor is working, then you have an added power source to help you on your way. Over time, your capacitor will wear down. All you will need to do is add a new fuse, and you will have sensational power again.


Bottom Line

Well, we have completed the installation process for a car audio capacitor. Remember that if you are still running into problems with power, you may want to check your alternator. It could be to blame. Also, when installing, wear safety protection, like goggles and take off any jewelry. Lastly, never add a capacitor that is uncharged to your vehicle. Charge it first. This will save you a big, big headache.

If you follow these steps, you will have a successful installation. Then, you will be able to have power to all parts of your vehicle. Enjoying your music and riding around town will be all you will want to do day after day.

Are you in need of car audio capacitor troubleshooting? Well, you have come to the right place with this article. If you are a fan of a righteous audio system, a power capacitor is a must. However, over time, the power supply from a capacitor can cause issues with your audio system.

With the capacitor coming in a circular shape, you will usually find them at 3-inch diameters at about one-foot long. Over time, the positive and negative terminals can cause other parts of your car to have problems. This would be things like headlights flickering or other electrical issues in a vehicle.

Still, if you are having trouble with your capacitor, your troubleshooting will be imperative for you to figure the problems out. This way, you can have a great piece of technology that works. And you will not have other parts of your vehicle failing either. So, without further ado, let us get to the troubleshooting of your capacitor.


Car Audio Capacitor Troubleshooting: An Ultimate Guide


There are quite a few ways that you can test a capacitor. Check out this list. This way, you can see if one of them works for you.


  • #1 – The Traditional Way

Now, even though the traditional way is the best way to go, only a professional should do the test. But, you can still figure out how it works by understanding this check. First, check for warning signs on the capacitor. If not, the individual working could be seriously damaged.

Some of the warnings to keep an eye on are what is the DC power. 24V is best, instead of the 230V AC. Professionals will begin by disconnecting the capacitor completely from power. Also, take one of the leads of the capacitor as well. When the capacitors are discharged completely, you can separate the leads altogether from the terminal capacitors.

Next, remove the safety leads as well. Lastly, make sure to have the capacitor terminals short. If a spark happens, then your capacitor is not to blame for the problem. However, if you have a small spark, your capacitor may be bad. You will need to change it immediately.


  • #2 – Use an Analog Multimeter

Start by having your capacitor completely discharged. Then, use an AVO meter. With the help of OHMs, set your AVO meter to that setting. Next, connect the AVO meter to the terminals of your Capacitor.

After things are all connected, look at the readings and see if the results are one of the following:

·   Good Capacitors: If you see low resistance, you will notice the meter increasing towards the infinite side. With all this in mind, you will be in good condition with your capacitor.

·   Short Capacitors: If you have low resistance from your meter that is extra low, you are dealing with as short in your capacitor.

·   Open Capacitors: Are you not seeing any movement on your meter screen? Then, you have an open capacitor that is having deflection issues.


  • #3 – Digital Multimeter Time

With the help of a Digital Multimeter, or DMM, you can also troubleshoot your problematic capacitor. As always, keep your capacitor discharged. Next, have the Ohm range set to 1000Ohm. Once you connect the meter to the terminals, you should be able to see a reading.

What the digital meter will show are a few numbers to start. Then, you will notice the reading going to an Open Line, or OL. If you test your capacitor a few more times this way, and you get the same reading, your capacitor is in good shape. However, if no charge is prevalent, then you have a dead capacitor, unfortunately.


  • #4 – Help With Capacitance Mode

With the help of a Capacitance Meter, you can do the next mode testing. However, if you do not have this kind of meter, a multimeter can do the job right as well. Also, you can test this on any type of capacitor, but smaller ones work best with this method.

To start, turn the know to Capacitance Mode if you have a multimeter or with a Capacitance Meter. You know what to do from here. Make sure that the capacitor itself is discharged fully. Next, keep the capacitors away from the circuit, as well as the board.

Once you are in Capacitance Mode, you can connect the meter leads to the terminal itself. A value will start to pop up on the screen. If it is near the value that your capacitor has been given, then you have a capacitor that is worth keeping.

However, if you have a low capacitance reading, then you have a dead capacitor. It is now time for you to get a new one. So, change yours out as soon as humanly possible.


  • #5 – Getting Your Voltmeter On

With a Voltmeter, start by getting rid of one lead from the circuit itself. Next, look at what the range of your voltage is. You will find this printed on the capacitor.

You can now charge the capacitor for a couple of seconds. Do this by connecting the red lead to the source of the voltage, while the long, positive line goes negative to negative. Next, by setting the Voltmeter, you can use DC power to the positive battery wire with the positive capacitor lead, as well as the negatives with one another.

Look at the reading from your Voltmeter. If you notice it is close to the recommended voltage, then you have a capacitor that is in good straights. However, if you have a little reading, it is time to throw out the old and bring in the new.


Final Note

Hopefully, with these troubleshooting methods, you should be well on your way to finding the problem. Then, you can come up with a solution that you are proud of for all the world to see. Best of luck with your capacitor in your vehicle.

We all love LED lights, especially how they’ve revolutionized the lighting industry. Due to their immense flexibility, these lights can brighten up almost any space setting including profile areas where traditional incandescent and halogen light sources can’t manage. Another huge advantage of LEDs is that they’re both eco-friendly and energy-efficient making it a perfect solution for your lighting needs. But, regardless of their huge benefits, the topic on how to connect LED strips have left most people seeking out for answers.

As we mentioned earlier, the flexibility of LED strips can allow you to be creative when managing your lighting projects. Whether it’s adding some ambiance to your kitchen, living room, office or commercial space, LED strips can offer a cost-efficient way of accomplishing all that.

So, with that said, this short guide will discuss everything you need to know about connecting LED strips. For easy perusal, we will break the article into three parts where we’ll start with cutting the LED strips, connecting them together then connecting the lights to a power source.

Note: The first two phases are easy to accomplish even without any electrical knowledge. However, the last section, which is connecting the strips to a power source, will require you to have immense knowledge in dealing with power connections. So, if you’re ready, then let’s roll.


How to Connect LED Strip Lights: Step by Step Guide

Part 1: Cutting the LED Strips


  • Step 1. Measure the Size of your Space:

Whether the LED strips are for decorative purposes or for lighting up a vanity, you’ll first need to measure the perimeter of the space you’ll be installing the lights on.

So, to accomplish this, simply use a tape measure to record the measurements. Note that, after you record the initial measurement, you’ll need to add a few meters to make the LED strips longer.

  • Step 2. Mark the LED Strip:

Next, refer to the measurements you took earlier to measure the strip accordingly to find exactly where you’ll be cutting. Using a marker, mark the spots where you’ll be cutting. Make sure that you spread the light strip to make the process easier.

  • Step 3. Locate the Designated Cutting Points:

This is one section you need to be really keen on. You see, LED strips have markings along the strip that tells you where it’s safe to cut. Some are marked with colored dots while others are marked with drawings of scissors.

Depending on the light strips you purchase, the cutting spots can either be spaced or close together. Light strips with spaced LED lights have spaced cutting points while those with LED lights close together to have their cutting points close together.

  • Step 4. Cut the Strip:

Once you’ve located the designated cut point, use a pair of scissors to cut along the cutting points gently. Make sure you don’t cut close to the LED lights to avoid damaging them.


Part 2: Connecting the LED Strips

a) By Using Clip Connectors

  • Step 1. Choose a Strip Connector that’s Compatible with your Light Strips: Using a strip connector in your project is quite useful as it allows you to connect multiple LED strips together. Here, you need to be very careful as light strip connectors defer depending on the specific model of your LED strips.
    • Hippo Buckle Lights Strip Connector: This type of connector allows you to clip and connect two LED strips close together. It’s the best for connecting both single color and RGB LED light strips especially if you need to extend the distance of the strips.
    • Solder-Free Light Strips: For the case of parallel LED tapes, using this type of connector can really help. They’re also ideal for connecting RGB, single color and dimmable LED strips.
    • Solder-Free LED Wire Connector: If you need to extend the length of your LED strip, then you can consider using this option. These wire connectors also help to connect two light strips together as well as allow the LED strip to curve in different shapes as well as fit in profile areas.
  • Step 2. Connect the Strip to the Wire: Once you figure out which strip connector to use, slide one end of the LED strip to the open end of the strip connector. Use the colored wires of the connector to figure out which wire connects to which dot on the light strip.
  • Step 3. Lock the Strip Connector: When you align the strip connector to the LED strip, close the connector gently. If you’re using a fold-over connector, press down the flap until it latches. For the case of a slip-on connector, use the grey or black button to lock it.


b) By Soldering the Wires

  • Step 1. Prepare a Well-Ventilated Working Area: The first step you need to take in case you consider this method is to isolate a working area that has enough ventilation. You can even choose to work outside or add a fan in your room.
  • Step 2. Wear Safety Gear: Wearing protective glasses and safety gloves is ideal when you’re getting ready to solder. This will protect you against any injuries as soldering iron can get really hot.
  • Step 3. Add Solder to the Wires: This process is called pre-tinning where a little solder is added to the wires. Also, add a little solder to the points of the LED strip where the wires will get in contact.
  • Step 4. Attach the Wires to the Light Strip: Once you’ve lined up the wires, use the iron to connect the wires to their respective points on the LED strip.


Part 3. Connecting the LED to a Power Supply

Now that you’ve connected the LED strips together, it’s time to connect the strips to the power supply. There are various ways you can do this. However, the two main methods are either by connecting the light strips individually to the socket or by hardwiring the LED strip then connecting it straight to the main power source.

Now, since our LED strips will be used to illuminate small spaces, we will choose the first method, which is connecting the light strips to the socket.

  • Step 1. Calculate the LED Strips Wattage:

The reason why it’s recommended to calculate the LED strip wattage is to help you determine the type of transformer that will be compatible with your lights. To calculate the wattage, simply multiply the length of the strip with the wattage per meter. This means, if the light strip is around 7 meters with an LED strip wattage of about 5W/m, then it will be [7 × 5 = 35 watts].

This means the transformer needed should have a power capacity of about 35 watts. To learn about your LED strip’s wattage, you can check on its manual or the website’s PDF files.

  • Step 2. Connecting the LED Strips to the Power Supply:

Here, you need to be certain that the specific power supply can power your light strips. Also, you should ensure that the power supply you choose can use 80% of its overall power to run the lights.

To ensure this, you’ll need to multiply the total wattage of your LED strip to the maximum power usage of your power supply which is 35W × 80/100 (0.8) = 28W.

  • Step 3. Now Connect the LED Strips to the Power Supply:

Now, there are two methods you can use to connect the LED strips to the power supply. You can use the series or the parallel connection method. The first is to connect the LED strips to a single power supply then connect the power supply to the socket. The second involves connecting parallel LED strips to a single wire clip then connect the clip to the socket.

One advantage with a parallel connection is that there’s immense power supply. However, with the series connection, there will be regular issues with voltage drops, which can be annoying.



So, are you still struggling to connect your LED strips? Well, you don’t have to strain anymore as this short guide has offered you a crystal clear step-by-step guide on how to connect your LED strip. LED lights come with so many benefits. First, they don’t leave a notable carbon footprint and second, they don’t emit heat thus making them cost-efficient.

They’re also easy to maintain as compared to their halogen and incandescent predecessors. They’re subtle, elegant and always open to immense decorative creativity for those that love interior decoration.

If you are a big fan of darts, it is important to know how high is a dartboard? With the help of a great dartboard, your set of darts (steel or soft), and a safe place to play, you will be well on your way to having loads of fun. However, if you do not have the right height for your dartboard, there could be big concerns. Not only your fun will be limited, but there will be safety issues as well.

With this in mind, read up on the information below. The material will help you get the appropriate measurements when you are trying to install your very own dartboard. Sure, you can have someone install it for you, but where is the fun in that. By installing your dartboard, you will have peace of mind with your setup when people come over to your place to play.


How High is a Dart Board: Step by Step Guide

The first thing you need to know about the dartboard is the fact that there is a standard internationally for darts. This measurement, also called the “clock” board, is one that most diehards live by. The measurements here include a diameter of 18-inches and it has 20 numbers created equally across the board. There are double and triple rings, as well as an inter and out bullseye.

Regulations for the Dartboard

When it comes to the height of the actual dartboard, the standard system is 5 feet 8-inches. This is measured from the center of the bullseye to the floor below. Also, you need to have the appropriate distance from the throwing line to the very front of the dartboard. However, this is different whether you have steel tip or soft tip darts.

Steel Vs. Soft Tip Darts

If you have steel tips darts, then from the throwing line to the front of the dartboard needs to be 7 feet and 9.25 inches apart. With the soft tip darts, it is even further at 8 feet apart. When marking the throw line, you can use a soft tape to give you a temporary solution. However, if you are wanting to be more tournament friendly, real darts uses what they call a “hockey.”

Now, you will not have to know anything about hockey to use this method when playing darts. A “hockey” is a throwing line of sorts that raising 1.5 inches off the ground. In darts, you have to throw behind the line.

There is also a steel tip diagonal that you need to understand as well. For the perfect geometry construction, there is a steel tip diagonal that needs to measure at 9 feet and 7 and 3/8-inches. When you have this appropriately done, then you will know that you have your dartboard placed well on your wall. The correct measurements matter here, and you must follow through with what they need to be for your dartboard.

However, if you want to get real technical, why not try a toe line market that is battery operated. A laser will mark the area that you need to stay behind. There are even some versions that beep if something passes over the line. How high-tech is that?

Mounting Location

Since you have the distances down, it is time for mounting your dartboard location. With the board flush up against the wall, make sure you have the 20 at the top of your dartboard installation. Next, do not put your dartboard near a window or other valuables. Darts can bounce around, especially with people that are a beginner’s level.

Also, you do not want to have darts in an area where people need to walk to and fro. Instead, have it away from your home’s traffic. Darts can be dangerous if not handled with care, and the situation truly matters. To further protect yourself, hard floors are the best place for darts. Wood or concrete can propel you in the right direction, or you can go with a dart mat that can save your floors and your wall.

The last thing you need to think about is the scoreboard. Most people install the scoreboard to the left or right of the dartboard. This gives you easy access to keeping score when playing darts.

Men’s Vs. Women’s Darts

In most leagues across the world, men and women throw the same distances. However, there are some leagues where the women’s distance shrinks from 7 feet 6 inches to 7 feet. But, in this day and age, equality is winning out more and more, knowing that women can handle the throwing distance.

Wheelchair Measurements

Well, what if there is someone in a wheelchair. How do the distances change? Well, in traditional darts, the dartboard is 173 centimeters (cm) off the ground. When it comes to a wheelchair player, the height should only be 137 cm at the center of the bullseye. There are also specific dartboard frames made, like the Wildfire 137, to help with the change. This way, people with a wide variety of ability ranges can be a part of this sport.



We have come to the end of the article, but now it is time for you to make your mark in the darting world. By knowing the appropriate heights and measurements, you will be very ready for official gameplay like you never thought possible. This way, you can go out there and practice to become the best dart player around.

You may play for fun, for competition, or money. Whatever the reason, measure properly so you can have the best chance of success. If you do not follow these measurements, you may struggle when darts comes full circle at someone else’s place. So, get your measuring tape out and get to work. Your hard work will pay off for years to come. Then, you can go have a blast playing the sport you love and are passionate about: darts.

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